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Year 7 Human Reproduction
Pupils should be able to:
- Explain that reproduction is the creation of new members of a species to continue the genetic line and prevent extinction.
- Describe that individuals are identical to their parents (asexual reproduction), or different from their parents (sexual reproduction).
- Explain that an organism is created by the expression of its genetic material.
- Explain that some organisms are able to produce new organisms that are genetically identical and can do so on their own.
- Describe methods that allow bacteria, plants and simple animals to reproduce asexually and understand that the offspring are clones.
- Explain that sexual reproduction involves the passing down of genetic material from both parents.
- Explain the location and function of the reproductive organs in humans : ovary, uterus, vagina, penis, testis, sperm duct, prostate gland.
- Explain that the male and female reproductive organs produce the sex cells (gametes) and bring them together, after sexual intercourse, in the oviduct.
- Identify and describe how sperm cells are adapted to their functions, eg a tail that pushes it along; streamlining, by reduction in size through having less cytoplasm; a specially strengthened head that contains chemicals to penetrate and break down the outer layers of the egg
- Identify and describe how egg cells are adapted to their functions, eg an enlarged cell with food reserves
- Explain that sperm and egg each contain half the inherited information needed and relate this to the concept of identical and non-identical twins
- Describe fertilisation in terms of the fusion of gametes nuclei,
- Identify that a sperm and egg cell carry genetic information which combines in the zygote.
- Explain that the zygote develops into a new human being and that its genetic information comes in equal amounts from both parents.
- Describe how the foetus develops in the uterus protected by the amniotic sac, amniotic fluid and placenta.
- Be able to describe the birth of the baby and the aftercare that is required.
- Be able to explain what contraception is and why it is important.
- Describe the development of the secondary sexual characteristics during adolescence.
- Explain simply how the production of eggs is controlled by the menstrual cycle.
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