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KS4 Human Circulation Learning Objectives
2.2.2 The heart and blood vessels
- Know the structure and functioning of the human heart and lungs, including how lungs are adapted for gaseous exchange.
- Know that the heart is an organ that pumps blood around the body in a double circulatory system.
- Know that the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place whereas the left ventricle pumps blood around the rest of the body.
- Be able to identify the aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and coronary arteries. (Knowledge of the names of the heart valves is not required.)
- Be able to identify the trachea, bronchi, alveoli and the capillary network surrounding the alveoli.
- Know that the natural resting heart rate is controlled by a group of cells located in the right atrium that act as a pacemaker.
- Know that artificial pacemakers are electrical devices used to correct irregularities in the heart rate.
- Know that the body contains three different types of blood vessels, Arteries, Veins and Capillaries and be able to explain how the structure of these vessels relates to their functions.
- Be able to use simple compound measures such as rate and carry out rate calculation for blood flow.
- Know that Blood is a tissue consisting of plasma, in which the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are suspended.
- Know that Plasma transports proteins and other chemical substances around the body.
- Know that Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which binds to oxygen to transport it from the lungs to the tissues.
- Know that White blood cells help to protect the body against infection.
- Know that Platelets are fragments of cells which initiate the clotting process at wound sites.
- Be able to recognise different types of blood cells in a photograph or diagram, and explain how they are adapted to their functions.
- Be able to observe and draw blood cells seen under a microscope.
- Be able to evaluate risks related to use of blood products.
2.2.4 Coronary heart disease: a non-communicable disease
- Know that in coronary heart disease layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them and reducing the flow of blood through the coronary arteries, resulting in a lack of oxygen for the heart muscle.
- Know that Stents are used to keep the coronary arteries open.
- Know that Statins are widely used to reduce blood cholesterol levels which slow down the rate of fatty material deposit.
- Know that in some people heart valves may become faulty, preventing the valve from opening fully, or the heart valve might develop a leak, understanding the consequences of faulty valves.
- Know that faulty heart valves can be replaced using biological or mechanical valves.
- Know that in the case of heart failure a donor heart, or heart and lungs can be transplanted.
- Know that Artificial hearts are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant, or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery.
- Be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of treating cardiovascular diseases by drugs, mechanical devices or transplant.
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