KS4 Plant Transport

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KS4 Plant Transport Learning Objectives

2.3.1 Plant tissues and organs

Students should:

  • Know that plant tissues include:
    - epidermal tissues, which cover the plant
    - palisade mesophyll, which carries out photosynthesis
    - spongy mesophyll, which has air spaces for diffusion of gases
    - xylem and phloem, which transport substances around the plant
    - meristem tissue found at the growing tips of shoots and roots which will differentiate into different plant cells.
  • Know that the leaf is a plant organ and how the structures of tissues in the leaf relate to their functions.
  • Know the roles of the epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, xylem and phloem and guard cells.
  • Be able to observe and draw of a transverse section of leaf.

2.3.2 Plant organ system

Students should:

  • Be able to explain how the structure of root hair cells, xylem and phloem are adapted to their functions.
  • Be able to explain the effect of changing temperature, humidity, air flow and light intensity on the rate of transpiration.
  • Know that the roots, stem and leaves form a plant organ system for transport of substances around the plant.
  • Be able to describe the process of transpiration and translocation, including the structure and function of the stomata.
  • Know how root hair cells are adapted for the efficient uptake of water by osmosis and mineral ions by active transport.
  • Know that Xylem tissue transports water and mineral ions from the roots to the stems and leaves.
  • Know that Xylem composed of hollow tubes strengthened by lignin adapted for the transport of water in the transpiration stream.
  • Know the role of stomata and guard cells are to control gas exchange and water loss.
  • Know that Phloem tissue transports dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant for immediate use or storage.
  • Know that the movement of food through phloem tissue is called translocation.
  • Know that the Phloem is composed of tubes of elongated cells and that cell sap can move from one phloem cell to the next through pores in the end walls. (Detailed structure of phloem tissue or the mechanism of transport is not required).
  • Be able to Measure the rate of transpiration by the uptake of water.
  • Be able to investigate the distribution of stomata and guard cells.
  • Be able to process data from investigations involving stomata and transpiration rates to find arithmetic means, understand the principles of sampling and calculate surface areas and volumes.
  • Be able to understand and use simple compound measures such as the rate of transpiration.
  • Be able to translate information between graphical and numerical form.
  • Be able to plot and draw appropriate graphs, selecting appropriate scales for axes.
  • Be able to extract and interpret information from graphs, charts and tables.

3.3.1 Detection and identification of plant diseases

Students should

  • Know that plant diseases can be detected by: (HT only)

stunted growth, spots on leaves, areas of decay (rot), growths, malformed stems or leaves, discolouration, the presence of pests.

  • Know that identification can be made by: (HT only)
    - Reference to a gardening manual or website
    - Taking infected plants to a laboratory to identify the pathogen
    - Using testing kits that contain monoclonal antibodies.
  • Know that plants can be infected by a range of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens as well as by insects.
  • Know the following examples of plant diseases: tobacco mosaic virus as a viral disease, black spot as a fungal disease and aphids as insects.
  • Know that plants can be damaged by a range of ion deficiency conditions:
    - stunted growth caused by nitrate deficiency due to a lack of protein synthesis
    - chlorosis caused by magnesium deficiency due to an inability to make chlorophyll
  • Know how the understanding of ion deficiencies allows horticulturists to provide optimum conditions for plants.

3.1.2 Viral diseases: details on TMV

Students should:

  • Know that Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a widespread plant pathogen affecting many species of plants including tomatoes.
  • Know that TMV gives a distinctive ‘mosaic’ pattern of discolouration on the leaves which affects the growth of the plant due to lack of photosynthesis.

3.1.4 Fungal diseases: details on rose black spot.

Students should:

  • Know that Rose black spot is a fungal disease where purple or black spots develop on leaves, which often turn yellow and drop early.
  • Know that rose black spot affects the growth of the plant as photosynthesis is reduced.
  • Know that rose black spot is spread in the environment by water or wind.
  • Know that rose black spot can be treated by using fungicides and/or removing and destroying the affected leaves.

3.3.2 Plant defence responses

Students should:

  • Know that physical defence responses to resist invasion of microorganisms include:
    - cellulose cell walls
    - tough waxy cuticle on leaves
    - layers of dead cells around stems (bark on trees) which fall off taking pathogens with them.
  • Know chemical plant defence responses including:
    - the production of antibacterial chemicals, such as mint and witch hazel
    - poisons to deter herbivores, such as tobacco plants, foxgloves and deadly nightshade.
  • Know mechanical adaptations including:
    - Thorns and hairs deter animals from eating or touching them.
    - Leaves which droop or curl when touched.
    - Mimicry to trick animals into not eating them or not laying eggs on the leaves

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