Year 7 Light and Sound

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Year 7 Light & Sound Learning Objectives

Pupils should know:

1.         that in the same substance, light travels in a straight line and at a fixed speed. 

2.         that the speed of light in air/vacuum is 3 x 108 m/s 

3.         that light is energy 

4.         that light spreads out as it travels from a source thus becoming dimmer 

5.         that shadows are formed because light cannot pass through objects and also light travels in a straight line 

6.         that the size of the source affects the shadow 

7.         that an umbra is the absence of light 

8.         that a penumbra is a reduction in the amount of light 

9.         how solar and lunar eclipses are formed 

10.       that light travels faster than sound so we see things before we hear them 

11.       that luminous objects give out light; that we see non-luminous objects because they scatter light to our eyes 

12.       that light can be reflected at flat mirrors and when it is the angle of incidence = angle of reflection 

13.       the use of i = r in periscopes, etc. 

14.       that in reflection an image is virtual 

15.       that in reflection the image is laterally inverted 

16.       that in reflection from a plane mirror the object size = image size 

17.       that in reflection from a plane mirror the image to mirror distance = object to mirror distance 

18.       how to locate an image in a plane mirror by drawing ray diagrams 

19.       that sound is made by objects that vibrate 

20.       that the frequency of vibration of the source is measured in Hertz (Hz) 

21.       how sound is made in different musical instruments 

22.       that a vibrating source causes the layers of air around it to move 

23.       that sound travels by compressing and expanding the surroundings 

24.       that sound travels as a longitudinal wave 

25.       that sound travels best through solids and worst through gases because of the arrangement of the particles 

26.       the relative speed of sound in different mediums 

27.       that sound waves cannot travel through a vacuum because there are no molecules 

28.       that sound waves detected by the ear cause the ear drum to vibrate 

29.       the structure of the ear 

30.       how sound is transmitted through the ear to the brain 

31.       that different people have different ranges of hearing 

32.       that the average human range of hearing is 20 to 20,000 Hz 

33.       that loudness is measured in decibels (dB's) 

34.       that 0 dB is the threshold of hearing and 130 dB's is the threshold of pain whilst 140 dB's causes damage 

35.       that loud sounds can have permanent and temporary effect on the ear 

36.       that some common causes of ear damage 

37.       that noise is unwanted sound 

38.       that the level of noise can be reduced by controlling the source, absorbing the sound, blocking the sound, reflecting or scattering the sound, destroying the sound by interference

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